Ms. Hsu: The Song dynasty was a turning point in Chinese history

2022-09-03 0 By

Liao (Jin) and Western Xia, and the Song Dynasty of China during the war and.We must understand that the relationship between these two states and Song is not the same as that between Xiongnu, Turkic and China in the past.They did not aim to invade China and acquire land. Their main demand was that China give them silk and silver.The silk, presumably also as commodities, was transferred to the West for profit.Therefore, the Song Dynasty to the north of the enemy states, not often to war, defense as the option, but to pay New Year coins to buy peace.There was also the transshipment of spices in the South China Sea between Song and Liao. All kinds of spices produced in The South China Sea islands were transported to the west through Liao — liao gained transshipment profits.Japan and Korea did not play major roles in east-west trade, but they did trade goods with China.For example, the State of Song did not produce enough copper itself, so it often had to buy copper catties from Japan.Goryeo also often undertook transit trade between Japan and song.As for the relationship between the Song dynasty and the Uighur and Tubo kingdoms, Hexi and Longyou played an important role in transshipment.The State of Song had run out of places to raise horses, so it had to go through the western road to buy horses on the grassland.For the Song, horses were not enough, but peaceful trade was mutually beneficial.From these perspectives, my discussion is quite different from the traditional view of pure Han nationality nationalism and orthodoxy.The Song considered itself to be orthodox in China. However, seeing all the neighboring states were more powerful than the Song, even the Xixia, with a population of only a few million, was too powerful to resist.At the time of the founding of the Song Dynasty, Emperor Taizu was worried that the generals, like himself, could usurp the throne at any time, so he had a cup of wine to explain the military power and remove the crisis of usurping the throne.Therefore, song emphasized literature over military power and lacked military power.As mentioned above, in the vicinity of the Song Dynasty, places where horses could be kept belonged to the Khitan or The Western Xia. At that time, it was impossible to have a strong military without horses.Despite his self-styled orthodoxy, the Song finally succumbed to his neighbors and exchanged yuan for peace every year.In terms of economic value, it is well worth spending a little money a year to buy peace and save the cost of raising troops and fighting.However, China lost its dignity and lacked the initiative to defend itself, which was a dilemma the Song had to face since its founding.Three hundred years in the Song dynasty, I could not get rid of this spell.In terms of cultural superiority, both liao and Xixia accepted Chinese culture to a considerable extent.Although there are different lifestyles in the north and the South — for example, the north uses milk and cheese more, while the South only drinks tea.In other aspects, especially in daily crafts, archaeological data show that the level of the two northern Hu states was no lower than that of China. In terms of porcelain, metallurgy, weaving and architecture, they all reached the same level of precision as the Song State.The steel sword of the Western Xia dynasty is very powerful, which is called the most in the East.The medical skills and arithmetic of the two northern states were as good as those of the Song people, owing to their acceptance of the eastern and western traditions integrated in the Tang Dynasty and their popularity among the people.The education of liao and Xixia intellectuals was also traditional Chinese classics.Judging from their writings, they are not inferior either.Liao and Xixia created their own written characters, using Chinese radicals to write pinyin characters.Liao (Khitan) also had two characters, big characters and small characters, each with specific purposes.Compared with the north and the South, the urbanization of Song is higher than that of the northern countries.After all, the two northern countries are still half herding, half farming and urban;The State of Song, on the other hand, had a dense exchange network of commodity economy, combining with market economy and interval trade.In terms of political system, the government structure of Liao was dualistic: the khitan nobles and other nomadic groups affiliated to the Khitan occupied the grazing land to the north;Originally part of southern China, the Han people lived in cities and villages, making a living from agriculture and commerce.Therefore, the ruling system of liao was divided into two parts: the north court administered the Hu people, and the south court administered the Han people.Moreover, some of the towns where the Han people lived were set aside as the domain of certain nobles — for example, the empress, princes, and royal relatives were likely to receive fiefs to support their daily lives.The state was a fighting body, the Hu were the main body of military service, and the Han were nothing more than subordinate officers — hu and Han had completely different positions in the military.This arrangement of the two-tier system, of course, caused extreme unrest and dissatisfaction among the Han people in the north.Some Han Chinese closer to the northern and southern borders organized themselves as local forces to protect themselves.Some of them are the institutionalization of civil self-defense organizations, while others are the continuation of the former DPRK border troops.When the Jin and Yuan occupied the north, a number of local warlords still existed as “Marshal of the Han Army” and maintained a semi-independent status.Compared with the Liao, the Western Xia had fewer people. Because of this, there was a bigger gap between the social status of the hu people, who were in the dominant position, and the Han people living in their country.The inequality of ethnic groups in Western Xia was more serious than that in Liao.Such ethnic differences finally gave birth to the ethnic consciousness of the Northern Han people.The Han people in the north developed a sense of ethnicity, and the awkward position of the Song people in establishing the country made them rethink the differences between hu and Han.Datang’s open mind, was far yue recent, come not to refuse.There was no serious class difference between hu and Han under the pattern of Emperor Tiankhanga.In the Tang Dynasty, zoroastrianism, Manichaeism and Buddhism coexisted with Taoism and Confucianism. China did not need to display its own cultural characteristics.Therefore, these foreign beliefs and ideas could be mixed and reorganized quite freely in the Tang Dynasty to form a new system.Buddhism is the best example. During the Tang Dynasty, Buddhism became Chinese, and Eastern Buddhism was actually different from the original Buddhism of India, as well as Buddhism of Southern Buddhism and Central Asia.After the An shi Rebellion, the Tang Dynasty was in chaos for a long time. Various Hu people took the Central Plains as the battlefield to seize China’s children, gold and silk.In the midst of chaos and humiliation, the Han people began to rethink their own cultural values. Han Yu and Li Aosui proposed introspection on Chinese culture after the Middle Tang Dynasty.From the early tang dynasty to the tang dynasty, the study and promotion of Confucianism did not appear outstanding achievements.The “original Tao” proposed by Han Yu is a reaffirmation of the local cultural heritage, and the ultimate concern of Confucianism is summed up as “Tao”, whose content is Confucian benevolence, righteousness, propriety and wisdom.Standing on the position of Confucianism, Han Yu held high the banner of excluding foreign traditions, regarded Buddhism and other foreign religions as the culture of Yi Di, and advocated reconfirming the distinction between China and Yi as well as between inside and outside.This trend of localization planted in the late Tang Dynasty blossomed and bore fruit in the Song Dynasty, leading to a new interpretation of Confucian theory.The Song dynasty replaced the Confucian tradition following the Han Dynasty.At the beginning of Song School, it also started from cosmology and epistemology, in which many elements of Taoism were adopted.But in the important stage of the development of Neo-Confucianism in the Northern Song Dynasty, it gradually moved towards the direction of self-cultivation, paying little attention to the part of “external king”, and paying little attention to cosmology and epistemology.There were many neo-Confucianism schools in the Northern Song Dynasty, which criticized each other and were like fire and water.There are not many compatible and comprehensive works between them.After the change of Jingkang, the country was destroyed, only half of the country was left.Song Dynasty scholars began to pay attention to the order of the world.Zhu Zi’s school of thought paid special attention to human ethics and put all human affairs under the standard of ethics.When Zhu Zi was alive, Zhu Learning did not become prominent, but with the needs of The Times, Zhu Learning soon became the Orthodoxy of Confucianism.Confucianism organized by scholars of the two Song Dynasties can be said to be a set of strict ideological system crystallized from the large-scale cultural inheritance since the Han Dynasty.Crystallized — as carbon crystallizes into a diamond, which is solid but loses its elasticity.After the two Song Dynasties, Confucianism made the Chinese culture and thought component have an obvious and can follow the pattern;Since then, however, Chinese culture has been restricted and the ability to absorb foreign elements has been lost.The study of Confucianism in Song dynasty not only meets the needs of its times, but also has a lasting influence.Whether it is good or bad will be a subject of constant debate.Parallel with the development of Confucianism was the social status of Confucian scholars in song Dynasty.As mentioned above, since the founding of the Song Dynasty, the social status of the military men in the past was suppressed, and literati were more important than military men, and all government posts were held by literati.Shortly after the founding of the People’s Republic of China, most of these civil servants were from the imperial examination.In the Tang Dynasty, the imperial examination system was lax, guan said and cited frequently, but ju zi’s knowledge and ability were not seriously assessed.The imperial examination system of the Song Dynasty was a very strict plan, which not only determined how to assess the understanding of the classics, but also had many measures to prevent cheating.Today, we are used to Taiwan’s joint college entrance examination and the mainland’s college entrance examination, will understand that under this examination system, memorization rather than play, easy to get high scores.Generation after generation, students tend to lose their spontaneous learning spirit after the training of examinations.The song Dynasty imperial examination background, in the government has considerable security, once entered the longmen, fame and wealth, for Confucian scholars of course has great attraction.This way, after several generations of development, will breed a community of scholars, in the society to occupy a certain position.Since the scope of knowledge needed to be determined according to the then official recognition of the theory, the exam-takers were certainly influenced by this set of theories, it is difficult to have their own opinions.The reform of Wang Anshi in the Northern Song Dynasty has a certain interpretation of Confucian classics. As long as the “New Deal” exists, this set of official learning has constrained the thoughts of a generation.Wang anshi’s “new learning” authority did not last long.However, the authority of Confucianism itself has since become an unshakable force of Chinese thought.Since Dong Zhongshu in the Han Dynasty, there had been a desire to establish Confucianism as one, but this desire was not completed until the Song Dynasty.For Chinese culture as a whole, the rigidity caused by this crystallization is more of a disaster than a contribution.The stable social status of Confucian scholars and their ideal of ruling the country together contributed to the formation of the “family” to a considerable extent.What family is different from the han dynasty after the song dynasty, but also different from the tang dynasty, who are led by a core family many affiliated community community in the composition of the population, the family in the song dynasty is basically a blood group, but perhaps three direct relatives of the five dynasties, the dozens of mouth to nearly one hundred people of kinship groups, constitute a community of mutual coexistence of life.From the Song Dynasty, kinship groups owned clan property as a specific welfare for taking care of their relatives, such as free schooling, pension, and so on.Scholars become a social group, and can continue their status by kinship, thus forming the superior position of the first “four people” in Shiji.At each county level, Confucian families were often called cultivators, and several families could be combined to become the main stabilizing force in the local area. They were also the most common interest groups in the local area.This change determined the basic pattern of Chinese society after the middle Ages, so that it was not until modern times that there were fundamental changes.In the study of Chinese history, the so-called transformation of tang and Song dynasties is an important subject.This significant change was the interaction of many aspects and various conditions, which was completed after the five dynasties and formed the pattern of pre-modern China.In retrospect, the certainty of “Han People” is not obvious in the world state system.In the Song Dynasty, there were several regime systems around, although they were not exactly the same as the typical state system.With the “other”, only the people in the Chinese base can confirm that the “we” themselves are the so-called “Han”.”China” is also defined as a region dominated by Han people and Confucianism, with Buddhism and Taoism as its own culture.If compared with other regions outside East Asia, the Catholic Church in Europe was superior to the state system in this era. Although there were different sects in The Islamic culture areas, they led the government by religion in their own fields, and they also had a universal political system.The development of China is similar to the development of these two places, that is, the universal value of Confucianism can surpass “China”, but “China” has finally lost the characteristics of “a country under heaven” that embraces all rivers and embraces everything.In contrast, Europe experienced the religious revolution and the rise of the nation state in modern times, which resulted in the disintegration of the universal church, leaving only the Form of the Vatican Church.After the impact of European imperialism, the Islamic world has lost its universal character in essence because its sects can only manage their own congregations.Confucianism in China, on the other hand, has no church and no obvious organization.Confucian scholars are placed in the system of political power. Dynasties can be changed, but the Authority of Confucianism and the social system it creates exist for a long time and are hard to change.This is the paradox of Chinese history: stability — even hyper-stability — is hard to adapt to the new environment created by external forces.The Song dynasty was a turning point in Chinese history: the solid foundation of the Han Dynasty, the grand scale of the Sui and Tang Dynasties, was transformed into a stable structure of Chinese culture.Since then, China has twice been able to stand up again in the face of complete foreign conquest.However, in the face of the vigorous western modern civilization, this stable Chinese cultural system could no longer accept and digest the ability to adapt.Speaking Of China — a Complex And Changing Community, Guangxi Normal University Press, 2015.